作者：北美考试院 托福写作组 崔国花
Integrated Writing Task
Keywords: population, pesticides, chemicals, the spread of, habitat, parasite, host, predator
TPO15 Cane Toad Spreading
• National fence to isolate the invaded area
• Captured and destroyed by volunteers
• Disease-causing virus to control the population
• 幼小的cane toads和toad eggs一般都在水中，所以建立围栏也防止不了它们顺着水流传播到未入侵区域；
• virus可能会被研究人员或宠物收集人带到中南美洲，杀死当地的cane toads，危害当地的生态系统。
TPO26 Zebra Mussel Spreading CANNOT Be Stopped
• zebra mussel会进入船只的ballast water，由欧洲传到北美；
• zebra mussel在新的栖息地没有predator；
• zebra mussel会和淡水鱼抢食物（plankton）。
• 船只可以在海上把ballast water排空，重新灌入海水。海水会杀死zebra mussel；
• 当zebra mussel刚到达一个地区时，它们确实是没有捕食者。但是在欧洲，水鸟（aquatic birds）很快就开始改变饮食习惯，开始捕食zebra mussel；
• zebra mussel可能威胁部分以plankton为食的淡水鱼，但同时又能造福另一些淡水鱼。这是因为zebra mussel会产生一种营养物质，在湖水或河水底部的淡水鱼食用这些物质，因此这类鱼的数量及鱼的总量都会增长。
² 杀虫剂/有毒物质（pesticides/ toxin）
² 病毒（virus, bacteria）
² 隔离/迁徙/引入（isolate/ migrate/ immigrate）
² 捕食关系（prey, predator, hunting）
Independent Writing Task
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The most important goal of education is to teach people how to educate themselves.
Education is one of the most effective and accessible ways to guarantee social mobility and personal well-being. Therefore, people have been delving increasingly deeper in both schooling and parenting, in hope of perfecting education system. The strange part of such devotion is that the majority of essays and speeches on this area is about learning ability, as if it were the ultimate goal of education. Personally, however, I believe educators should give higher priorities on mental growth.
Admittedly, self-learning ability is vital in one’s life, especially for adults who have few chances to be a full-time student. Some people insist that it is indispensable for one to acquire the skills to keep searching information and updating his or her knowledge, because we are living in a fast-paced society where numerous existing jobs are and will be replaced by new ones sooner or later. Under such circumstance, those who are capable to educate themselves are more likely to secure a brighter career life.
However, the ability of educating oneself is not the panacea for all social and individual issues. After all, human beings are social creatures supporting and relying on each other. Therefore, education has higher goals: character building. Today, Internet and jet aircrafts have closely connected people around the world in an unprecedented way. Consequently, people from different cultures are more likely to be exposed to each other. If one is taught to be empathetic and concerned about others, especially the least advantaged ones, greater missions can be achieved. For instance, people in developed countries set a number of programs to help women and children in impoverished areas. It is not self-learning ability but ethics that drive the former to spare time and effort for the latter’s good. To conclude, compared with competitive learners, moral citizens are more beneficial to society.
Furthermore, nurturing curiosity is also essential for one’s future development. Some teachers and parents focus so much on what a kid has or hasn’t acquired that they pay little attention on what drives that kid to learn. In the long run, students will gradually be bored with schoolwork. Worse, once there are no exams nor assigned tasks, people with fewer willingness to explore the world will stop learning, whether they are equipped with strong self-educating abilities or not. Gradually, such employees get consumed in their work while having no interest or passion in other fields. On the contrary, however, those who are eager to probe the new territories will have fun in study, work, and daily life. Even if some of them find it difficult to learn by themselves, they could turn to online and offline courses or study groups, which are prevalent in modern society.
Education should focus more on people instead of pieces of knowledge. If a school gives higher priority to the preparation for future workers rather than cultivation of responsible citizens, it is confusing the means of education with the ends of this undertaking.